Types of Lead acid Batteries|Guide to Lead Acid Battery Varieties

Lead acid batteries have been in use since a very long time. The first lead acid battery was invented by Gaston Plantae in 1859. Lead acid batteries are convenient to use, easy to charge , inexpensive and are a tried and tested technology. Many improvisations have been done in the lead acid batteries to help them deliver high performance.

This is the reason many lead acid battery manufacturers employ improvements to bring out an innovative product that will meet the energy needs of the customers in a better way.

What are lead acid batteries:

Your inverter battery might be a lead acid one or your automotive could be. Most of the batteries used for power storage in homes, vehicles, and  industries are lead acid batteries. The name gives away the fact that it contains lead in some form. Yes it does.

What do they look like?

A common lead acid battery is not like the pencil batteries we use in the TV remote rather they are box shaped. They have a plastic casing of varied height.

Inside it has sulfuric acid in which negative and positive electrodes are dipped. Due to the reversible reaction occurring, these batteries store energy on charging which can be later used

Parts of lead acid battery:

1.The positive electrode made of lead oxide 

2.Negative electrode made of porous lead. 

3.Electrolytic solution made of a mixture of sulfuric acid and water.

Recent advancements have led to the birth of different types of lead acid batteries. They can also be differentiated on the basis of usage also.

Types of lead-acid batteries:

Based on construction design:




Flooded lead acid batteries are the common and the most used ones. They are called flooded because they contain sulfuric acid and water inside which is the electrolyte. The electrolytic solution can move around freely inside the battery.

They have to be  watered at the required times and have to be maintained.


Sealed lead acid batteries have the contents inside the battery sealed which prevents any unforeseen leakage or spillage. Thus it is convenient for long distance transportation and frequent handling.

They are also known as VRLA or valve regulated lead acid batteries.

They have vents to let out the hydrogen gas formed during the reaction. There are improvisations done in them and they are available in different variations.

(1)AGM battery

The AGM batteries or Absorbed Glass Mat batteries have a glass mat inside them to hold the electrolyte which is not free flowing. These glass mat separators are porous, made of microfibre glass and hold the electrolyte in place which helps to lower the internal resistance thereby increasing efficiency.

They are also able to provide more capacity for the available space due to their construction.

(2)Gel Sealed lead battery

In this type of gel sealed battery, the electrolyte is not present as liquid but rather in a gel formed which is achieved by the addition of silica which renders them immobile. Thus chances of leakage and spillage are reduced to a great extent.

Its design helps to lower the evaporation of the electrolyte and they can withstand more range of temperature and vibration thus making them more durable.

They also have low self discharge as compared to the flooded ones but they are slightly on the expensive side of the price but are worth it given their features.

Based on the cycles

1.Deep cycle

2.Starter batteries

Now let’s understand the lead acid batteries which are differentiated based on the cycles they undergo.

1.Deep cycle batteries

Deep cycle batteries are made to provide long lasting power uninterruptedly. They provide a continuous power and run the appliances or vehicles with its stored power. 

They are designed to undergo multiple charging and discharging cycles hence the plates are thicker.

2.Starter Batteries

These are the automotive batteries which means they are used to start the vehicles. Here the battery provides large bursts of high current for a short period of time. This leads to cranking up of the engine. The battery design is thinner and incorporates more plates than the deep cycle battery to give a larger surface area to let more reaction to occur.

If you are looking to buy batteries for your homes or vehicles, then go for Vacuna, which is a leading lead acid battery manufacturer offering inverter, solar and E-Rickshaw batteries. Their batteries are of excellent quality and give more power and performance.

5 top inverter battery problems

4 things that are harming your inverter battery 

Inverter batteries are an inevitable part of inverters. They store the electricity which can be later used to power the home during the long and irritating power cuts. We are well aware of the functioning of an inverter battery and we know that we have to take care of it to prolong its life.

Here are the few reasons that are leading to damage to your inverter battery:

1.Lack of regular maintenance 

As we all know, regular maintenance of the inverter battery is really important otherwise it will stop working. So start taking care of your inverter battery like checking for any damage, topping with water, keeping it in  a ventilated place away from fire and water. 

If you carry out proper maintenance it will ultimately lead to a longer lifespan of the inverter battery.


There corrosion occurs at two places- one at the grid and the other at the terminals.

a)corrosion at the grid:

Corrosion happens mostly  in the grid where the lead gets softened and shed from the grid. It is an evitable thing because the reaction between the plates and sulfuric acid is very reactive. This corrosion leads to reduced efficiency of the battery. It is mostly a problem in deep cycle batteries as they are designed for deep discharging unlike the starter batteries which are used for starting up the vehicle.

b)corrosion at the terminals

After a long usage corrosion of the terminals occurs. It looks like white powder on the terminals. It leads to slow current flow thus hampering the working of the battery.

Terminal cleaners are available to clean off the rusting or corrosion and after that you can apply petroleum jelly on the terminals and bolts to protect it. 

3.Over Deep discharging

Although inverter batteries are made for deep discharging but care has to be taken so that frequent deep discharging does not happen. When deep discharging happens it means that the battery has been used till its full capacity. Actually we are talking about over discharging which means the internal resistance of the battery has increased which makes recharging of the battery difficult.

Every battery has a cut-off voltage and discharge rate. They both are inversely proportional to each other.If the cut off voltage is low then the discharge rate will be high. Keep in mind that once the battery is overly deeply discharged then it can’t be again.

4.Loose connections

Always check loose connections on the batteries. If you notice any,get them repaired at the soonest possible. The connection of the battery to the inverter could be loose or the battery to the power socket could be loose which may lead to sparking or more damages.

Get the connections checked at the earliest to avoid any further damage to the battery.


The good thing here, most of the problems can be avoided with timely intervention and precautions. Follow the following tips to extend the battery life:

1.Avoid overcharging and deep discharging

2.Don’t operate at extremely high temperature conditions

3.Keep the battery in a ventilated place.

4.Carry out maintenance check.


Take good care of the battery with preventive maintenance and your battery will have a longer life.

Always choose high quality inverter batteries for high performance and durability. If you are looking for high performing inverter batteries then choose Vacuna inverter batteries that have longer backup and low maintenance. Visit their website at www.vacuna.in and select from their wide variety of batteries.